Due to its excellent mechanical properties and low weight, carbon fiber (CF) can increase the strength of the base polymer, and this reinforcement material occupies a dominant position in high-performance applications.
The effect of carbon fiber on PVDF performance
- Studies have shown that the friction coefficient of CF/PVDF composites increases with the increase of load and decreases with the increase of sliding frequency. The volume wear of CF/PVDF composites increases with the increase of load and reciprocating sliding frequency. Adhesion and plastic deformation are the main wear mechanisms of pure PVDF under dry sliding. When combined with carbon fiber, adhesion and plastic deformation are greatly reduced.
Figure 1. Variations of friction coefficient with load and reciprocating sliding frequency 
- Compared with pure PVDF, due to the poor interaction between the matrix PVDF and the carbon fiber filler, the tensile strength and elongation at break of the composite material are reduced. When the addition of carbon fiber filler increases, the dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the composite material increase accordingly. For composite materials with a filling volume lower than the permeability threshold, the AC resistivity is frequency dependent, while for composite materials with a filling volume equal to or higher than the permeability, it is independent of frequency. CF/PVDF composites exhibit a (positive temperature coefficient) PTC or (negative temperature coefficient) NTC effect on resistivity, depending on the filler loading. The dielectric properties increase with the increase of carbon fiber load, which is mainly due to the increase of interface polarization and electronic conductivity, especially in the low frequency region.
Figure 2. Tensile strength and elongation at break of CF/PVDF composites 
- Since the incorporation of CF into PVDF can effectively improve the friction and wear properties of the friction material, at the same time this PVDF-based friction material has good radiation resistance. Therefore, the composite material composed of CF and PVDF is beneficial to the application of ultrasonic motors (such as ultrasonic motor friction materials), especially in certain radiation environments.
Figure 3. SEM morphologies of the worn surface of CF/PVDF composites with different filler content 
- CF/PVDF composite material combines the advantages of carbon fiber and PVDF, has high dielectric constant and good processing performance, and has application potential in the rapidly developing electronic and information fields.
- Carbon fiber reinforced PVDF composite materials can be used in applications that require both chemical resistance and toughness, such as the oil and gas industry.
- W. Z. Nie, J. Li, X. Z. Li, Fibers and Polymers 11 (2010) 559-564.
- Ranvijai Ram, Mostafizur Rahaman, Dipak Khastgir, Journal of Applied Polymer Science 131 (2014) 39866.
- Qingjun Ding, Gai Zhao, Hanmin Peng, Yudan Zhang, Huafeng Li, Polymer Composites 37 (2016) 547-552.
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